Arctic Clouds and Lights Used: News from Universities | Imperial News

Here is a batch of fresh news and announcements from the entire Imperial.

Here’s some quick-read news from the entire university, from studies showing that clouds are sensitive to warming and pollution, to millions of pounds of grants to investigate light-driven energy transformations.

Clouds and climate

Image of clouds over the Arctic Ocean.
Credits: Shutterstock

How clouds react to climate change is an important area of ​​research. Under certain conditions, clouds can increase or decrease the effects of warming. Knowing which one they are more likely to do will help researchers to more accurately model future climates.

now, Rebecca Murray-Watson When Dr. Edward Grispelt From Imperial Department of Physics Clouds above the Arctic show that they are sensitive to both warming and pollution. They showed that if only warming or pollution occurred, the clouds would retain more water and become brighter and respond by cooling the surface.

However, when warming and increased pollution occur at the same time, the clouds become thinner and the surface becomes warmer. This additional warming is the most likely scenario, as the Arctic climate warms and more pollution is released from increased transport in the region. This can have knock-on effects such as limiting the formation of sea ice in the fall.

read more Atmospheric chemistry and physics..

Leukemia virus survival

A diagram showing how HTLV-1 and HIV persist in the body.
Both HTLV-1 and HIV survive in the body by hiding certain parts of the cell nucleus where the gene is less active.

In people infected with HIV or the human T-cell leukemia virus HTLV-1, the virus survives indefinitely in the infected cells, despite a strong immune response. It is not fully understood why some of the infected cells survive and others are killed by the immune system.

A new study, including Imperial researchers, found that surviving cells contained viral DNA at specific physical locations in the nucleus and at specific locations along the chromosomes. However, it remains unclear what the cells are doing exactly to avoid the immune response.

Professor Charles BanghamCo-Director of Imperial Infectious Diseases Research Institute, Says: “These viruses utilize some basic function of organizing the genome in the nucleus that has not yet been identified.

“Viruses are not only important tools for investigating normal biological processes, but also important in themselves by causing disease.”

Read more about research Science Advances..

Sustainable collaboration

French President Francois Hollande will appear with then-UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon after signing the Paris Agreement.
After the signing of the Paris Agreement, French President Francois Hollande held a press conference with then-Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.

Global sustainability efforts have been streamlined as part of two UN agendas, the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals. As policymakers try to put these goals into practice, they wonder how they affect each other and whether such interactions are always linear without potential turning points. Is often.

Analyzing 400 variables in more than 150 countries over the last 20 years Felix Roman When Professor Mauricio Barahona from Mathematics Imperial investigated how the interactions between these agendas emerged.

Their findings show that global partnerships are essential to address climate change, improve education levels in low-income countries and reduce poverty globally. By dividing the country into different groups (eg, Global North and Global South), the results emphasize the need to leverage the expertise of local stakeholders to define goals according to local circumstances and priorities. I am.

read more Lancet planetary health..

Treatment of rectal cancer

Image of a woman receiving radiation therapy for breast cancer
Credits: Shutterstock

Patient selection for preoperative treatment such as radiation therapy for rectal cancer is a controversial issue. The 2020 National Institute for Health and Care Technology (NICE) guidelines will require significantly more patients with rectal cancer to receive preoperative radiation therapy compared to previous NICE guidelines.

However, a new study involving Imperial researchers found that such a less selective approach to treatment could lead to radiation therapy abuse and worsening patient outcomes.

Researchers have implemented non-selective radiation therapy strategies that “substantially harm” patients through increased morbidity, increased bowel and sexual dysfunction, poor quality of life, and increased NHS resources. It warns that it may cause.

Imperial Professor Gina Brown Department of Surgery and CancerParticipating in this research said: “This study is important to address the importance of preoperative staging by MRI in identifying patients who do not require pelvic radiation therapy.

“Now that this information can be shared with patients, patients can make informed choices based on accurate prognostic information.”

Read more about research Lancet Oncology..

Use light

“GaP disk on photoelectrode for enhanced water splitting” by Ludwig Hüttenhofer

Imperial is part of a new £ 10 million EPSRC grant led by King’s College London, investigating nanoscale photodriven energy transformations to stimulate chemical transformations. This has the potential to solve one of the most pressing demands for a sustainable society, the reduction of energy required for major chemical processes.

This project aims to develop a new field of study called “plasma catalysis”. It takes advantage of the light-collecting capacity of metal nanostructures and converts this energy to control the chemical reaction pathways of photocatalysis and photocatalysis. This research has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications in the energy production, environmental cleanup and pharmaceutical industries.

Imperial lead Professor Stephan Meier The field of plasmonics has long influenced the ability to control the interaction of light with matter on the smallest scale. This research and a new program linking the UK-led field of catalysis opens up fascinating opportunities. For new research, and ultimately for devices that use sunlight as their primary energy source. “

Read more at King’s College London News Articles..People browsing Imperial News websites on their smartphonesWant to keep your Imperial news up to date? Sign up for the free Quick Lead Daily Electronic Newsletter, Imperial Today..

Main Image Credit: Shutterstock.

Arctic Clouds and Lights Used: News from Universities | Imperial News

Source link Arctic Clouds and Lights Used: News from Universities | Imperial News

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